Bibliographystyle Chicago Options

If you include several quotes from the same source within a single paragraph, and you do not cite any other sources in between, it may be easiest to just include a footnote the first time, then include page numbers inside parentheses for the following quotes.

For example:

Some people claimed that "the world will end on December 21, 2012."1 They based this assertion on "mathematical calculations and prophecies from the ancient Maya" (3). However, the clear continuance of the world on December 22 disproved this belief.

1. John Doe, "The End of the World,"


If you cite the same source in two footnotes in a row (no other citations/footnotes between them), you may use "ibid." (Latin, "in the same place") as a shortcut for saying that you are referring to the same source as in the previous note.

Some people claimed that "the world will end on December 21, 2012."1 The clear continuance of the world on December 22 disproved this belief. However, it is interesting to investigate what made this belief so convincing to people.

In many cases, this assertion was based on "mathematical calculations and prophecies from the ancient Maya."2

1. John Doe, Book Title, Boston: Publisher, 2008, 31.

2. Ibid., 78.


If the two references are on the same page (or if the source has no page numbers), just use "Ibid." by itself. If the references are to different pages, add a comma and the page number after Ibid.


Do not use Ibid. unless the exact same source is cited in immediately subsequent footnotes, with no other citations in between.

For a more detailed description of the package, LATEX the source file .


The package is a reimplementation of the LATEX command, to work with both author-year and numerical citations. It is compatible with the standard bibliographic style files, such as , as well as with those for , , , , .


Load with . See list of options at the end.

Replacement bibliography styles

I provide three new files to replace the standard LATEX numerical ones:

Basic commands

The package has two basic citation commands, and for textual and parenthetical citations, respectively. There also exist the starred versions and that print the full author list, and not just the abbreviated one. All of these may take one or two optional arguments to add some text before and after the citation.
    -->    Jones et al. (1990)
    -->    Jones et al. (1990, chap. 2)
    -->    (Jones et al., 1990)
    -->    (Jones et al., 1990, chap. 2)
    -->    (see Jones et al., 1990)
    -->    (see Jones et al., 1990, chap. 2)
    -->    Jones, Baker, and Williams (1990)
    -->    (Jones, Baker, and Williams, 1990)

Multiple citations

Multiple citations may be made by including more than one citation key in the command argument.
    -->    Jones et al. (1990); James et al. (1991)
    -->    (Jones et al., 1990; James et al. 1991)
    -->    (Jones et al., 1990, 1991)
    -->    (Jones et al., 1990a,b)

Numerical mode

These examples are for author-year citation mode. In numerical mode, the results are different.
    -->    Jones et al. [21]
    -->    Jones et al. [21, chap. 2]
    -->    [21]
    -->    [21, chap. 2]
    -->    [see 21]
    -->    [see 21, chap. 2]
    -->    [21, 32]

Suppressed parentheses

As an alternative form of citation, is the same as but without parentheses. Similarly, is without parentheses. Multiple references, notes, and the starred variants also exist.
    -->    Jones et al. 1990
    -->    Jones, Baker, and Williams 1990
    -->    Jones et al., 1990
    -->    Jones, Baker, and Williams, 1990
    -->    Jones et al., 1990; James et al., 1991
    -->    Jones et al., 1990, pg. 32
    -->    (priv. comm.)
The command allows arbitrary text to be placed in the current citation parentheses. This may be used in combination with .

Partial citations

In author-year schemes, it is sometimes desirable to be able to refer to the authors without the year, or vice versa. This is provided with the extra commands
    -->    Jones et al.
    -->    Jones, Baker, and Williams
    -->    1990
    -->    (1990)

Forcing upper cased names

If the first author's name contains a von part, such as ``della Robbia'', then produces ``della Robbia (1998)'', even at the beginning of a sentence. One can force the first letter to be in upper case with the command instead. Other upper case commands also exist.
when    -->    della Robbia (1998)
then    -->    Della Robbia (1998)
     -->    (Della Robbia, 1998)
     -->    Della Robbia 1998
     -->    Della Robbia, 1998
     -->    Della Robbia
These commands also exist in starred versions for full author names.

Citation aliasing

Sometimes one wants to refer to a reference with a special designation, rather than by the authors, i.e. as Paper I, Paper II. Such aliases can be defined and used, textual and/or parenthetical with:
->Paper I
->(Paper I)
These citation commands function much like and : they may take multiple keys in the argument, may contain notes, and are marked as hyperlinks.

Selecting citation style and punctuation

Use the command with one optional and 6 mandatory arguments:
  1. the opening bracket symbol, default = (
  2. the closing bracket symbol, default = )
  3. the punctuation between multiple citations, default = ;
  4. the letter `n' for numerical style, or `s' for numerical superscript style, any other letter for author-year, default = author-year;
  5. the punctuation that comes between the author names and the year
  6. the punctuation that comes between years or numbers when common author lists are suppressed (default = ,);

The optional argument is the character preceding a post-note, default is a comma plus space. In redefining this character, one must include a space if one is wanted.

Example 1, changes the output of

into [Jones et al. 1990; 1991, James et al. 1992].

Example 2, changes the output of

into (Jones et al. 1990; and references therein).

Other formatting options

  • Redefine to the desired sectioning command for introducing the list of references. This is normally or .
  • Define to be any text that is to be printed after the heading but before the actual list of references.
  • Define to be a font declaration, e.g. to apply to the list of references.
  • Define to be a font declaration or command like or .
  • Redefine as a command with an argument to format the numbers in the list of references. The default definition is .
  • The indentation after the first line of each reference is given by ; change this with the command.
  • The vertical spacing between references is set by ; change this with the command.

Automatic indexing of citations

If one wishes to have the citations entered in the indexing file, it is only necessary to issue at any point in the document. All following commands, of all variations, then insert the corresponding entry to that file. With , these entries will no longer be made.

Use with package

The package is compatible with the package which makes it possible to have several bibliographies in one document.

The package makes use of the command, and each file has its own bibliography.

The order in which the and packages are loaded is unimportant.

The package provides an option that puts the bibliography in a instead of , something that makes sense if there is a bibliography in each chapter. This option will not work when is also loaded; instead, add the option to natbib.

Every d file must contain its own command where the bibliography is to appear. The database files listed as arguments to this command can be different in each file, of course. However, what is not so obvious, is that each file must also contain a command, preferably with the same style argument.

Sorting and compressing citations

Do not use the package with natbib; rather use one of the options or .

These also work with author-year citations, making multiple citations appear in their order in the reference list.

Long author list on first citation

Use option to have first citation automatically give the full list of authors.

Suppress this for certain citations with , given before the first citation.

Local configuration

Any local recoding or definitions can be put in which is read in after the main package file.

Options that can be added to

  • : (default) for round parentheses;
  • : for square brackets;
  • : for curly braces;
  • : for angle brackets;
  • : (default) to separate multiple citations with colons;
  • : to use commas as separaters;
  • : (default) for author-year citations;
  • : for numerical citations;
  • : for superscripted numerical citations, as in Nature;
  • : orders multiple citations into the sequence in which they appear in the list of references;
  • : as but in addition multiple numerical citations are compressed if possible (as 3-6, 15);
  • : makes the first citation of any reference the equivalent of the starred variant (full author list) and subsequent citations normal (abbreviated list);
  • : redefines to issue instead of ; valid only for classes with a command; to be used with the package;
  • : keeps all the authors' names in a citation on one line; causes overfull hboxes but helps with some problems.

About this document ...

This document was generated using the LaTeX2HTML translator Version 200 2-1 (1.68), © 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, Nikos Drakos, Computer Based Learning Unit, University of Leeds, © 1997, 1998, 1999, Ross Moore, Mathematics Department, Macquarie University, Sydney.

The command line arguments were: latex2html

Original file: natnotes.tex, © 1993-2002 Patrick W Daly, Max-Planck-Institut fr Aeronomie, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau

The original LATEX file was modified by S. Merkel, Institute for Solid State Physics, Univ. of Tokyo, on 12/26/2002 to be converted to HTML properly.

The resulting HTML file was modified by S. Merkel as well.


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