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A Friend Indeed: for women in the prime of lifeProquest Gender Watch
2001-2006
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A Journal of Church & StateProQuest
1997-2013
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A Journal of Church & StateHein Online
1959-2008
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A&D WatchProQuest
2013-2015
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A&G Information ServicesGaleNet
1999-2006
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A-Sonic Aerospace Limited MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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A. M. Castle & Co. MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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A. magazineProquest Ethnic Newswatch
1990-2002
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A. O. Smith Corporation MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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A. O. Smith Corporation SWOT AnalysisEbsco Business
2008-current
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A. Schulman, Inc. MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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A. Schulman, Inc. SWOT AnalysisEbsco Business
2008-current
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A. Soriano Corporation MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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A.A.N.A. journalEbsco Host CINAHL
1981-current
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A.C. Moore Arts & Crafts, Inc. MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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A.G. Spanos Companies SWOT AnalysisEbsco Business
2008-2011
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A.G.Barr p.l.c. MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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A.M. Best NewswireGaleNet
1998-current
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A.M.A. archives of neurology & psychiatryAmerican Medical Association (AMA) Backfiles
v.1:1 1919-v.81:6 1959
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A.M.A. archives of otolaryngologyAmerican Medical Association (AMA) Backfiles
v.52:4 1950-v.71:6 1960
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A.M.A. archives of surgeryAmerican Medical Association (AMA) Backfiles
v.61:4 1950-v.80:6 1960
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A.P. Eagers Limited MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2016-current
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A.P. Moller Maersk A/S SWOT AnalysisEbsco Business
2008-current
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A.P. Moller-Maersk A/S MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2015-current
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A.P. Moller-Maersk AS SWOT AnalysisEbsco Business
2016-current
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A.S. Creation Tapeten AG MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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A.S. Watson Group MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2015-current
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A.T. Cross Company MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2013-current
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A/S Cimbria MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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A24 MEDIA (English)Lexis Nexis Academic Universe
2011-current
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A2A SpA MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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ãa0ãaeãaeãaaçµiæ¸e週åa±ProQuest
1998-1999
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AAA, Arbeiten aus Anglistik & AmerikanistikChadwyck PAO
1976-2000
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AAACN ViewpointEbsco Host CINAHL
2004-current
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AAACN ViewpointProQuest
2001-current
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AAAS report ... research & developmentGaleNet
1984-1989
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AAC Technologies Holdings Inc. MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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AACE International TransactionsEbsco Business
2001-2009
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AACE International TransactionsProQuest
1988-2008
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AACN advanced critical careOVID
v.17:2 2006-v.26:4 2015
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AACN bold voicesEbsco Host CINAHL
2009-current
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AACN clinical issuesOVID
v.5:4 1994-v.17:1 2006
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AACN clinical issues in critical care nursingOVID
v.1:1 1990-v.5:3 1994
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AACN newsGale Cengage Health Reference Center Academic
2006-2008
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AACN newsEbsco Host CINAHL
2004-2009
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AACN Nursing Scan In Critical CareProQuest
1998-current
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AAF-McQuay Inc. MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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AAI Limited MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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AAIPharma Services Corp. MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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AaiPharma, Inc. SWOT AnalysisEbsco Business
2008-current
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AAK AB MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2015-current
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Aalberts Industries N.V. MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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AALL spectrumEbscoHost OmniFile
2005-current
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AAMC reporterMiscellaneous Ejournals
v.9:4 2000-current
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AANA journalProQuest
2004-current
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AANA journalEbscohost Academic Search Complete
2001-current
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AAO-HNSF Patient of the Month ProgramEbsco Host CINAHL
2006-2011
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AAOHN JournalOVID
v.48:1 2000-v.57:12 2009
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AAOHN journalEbsco Host CINAHL
2003-2010
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AAON, Inc. MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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AAOS Atlas of Orthoses & Assistive DevicesElsevier ClinicalKey Books
No holdings information available
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AAOS nowGale Cengage Health Reference Center Academic
2010-2015
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AAOS nowEbscohost Academic Search Complete
2010-2016
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AAP Bulletin WireProQuest
2005-current
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AAP Finance News WireProQuest
2004-current
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AAP General News WireProQuest
2004-current
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AAP grand roundsHighwire Press
1999-current
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AAP newsHighwire Press
1985-current
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AAPICO Hitech Public Company Limited MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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AAPS JournalSpringerLink
v.1:2 1999-current
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AAR Corp. MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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Aareal Bank AG MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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AarhusKarlshamn AB MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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Aarhuus StiftstidendeProQuest
2010-current
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Aarhuus StiftstidendeProquest Newsstand International
2010-current
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Aaron Rents, Inc. SWOT AnalysisEbsco Business
2009-current
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Aaron's, Inc. MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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Aaron's, Inc. SWOT AnalysisEbsco Business
2014-current
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AARP modern maturityProQuest
1991-1997
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AARP the magazineGale Cengage Health Reference Center Academic
2016-current
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AASRI ProcediaScienceDirect
v.1: 2012-v.9 2014
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Aastrom Biosciences, Inc. MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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AATCC journal of researchIngenta
2014-current
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AATCC reviewIngenta
v.14:1 2014-current
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Aavid Thermalloy, LLC MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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AB Bank Limited MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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AB City Service MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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AB Electrolux MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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AB Electrolux SWOT AnalysisEbsco Business
2015-current
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AB Elektrokoppar MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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Ab EuropeGaleNet
2000-2003
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AB Industrivarden MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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AB Rokiskio Suris MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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AB Volvo MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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AB Volvo SWOT AnalysisEbsco Business
2016-current
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AB Wilh. Becker MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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Ab:UKGaleNet
2003-2006
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ABA bank complianceProQuest
1994-2006
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ABA Bank Directors BriefingProQuest
2003-2014
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ABA Bank MarketingEbsco Business
1993-2013
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ABA Bank MarketingEbscoHost OmniFile
2001-2013
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ABA Bank MarketingProQuest
1987-2006
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ABA Bank MarketingGaleNet
2001-current
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ABA Bank Marketing & SalesEbscoHost OmniFile
2014-2015
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ABA Bank Marketing & SalesEbsco Business
2014-2015
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ABA bankers newsProQuest
1994-2006
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ABA journalProQuest
1992-current
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ABA journalHein Online
v.70: 1984-v.99 2013
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ABA journalGaleNet
2007-current
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ABA journalEbscohost Academic Search Complete
1984-current
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ABA Journal of Labor & Employment LawEbscoHost OmniFile
2012-current
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ABA journal of labor & employment lawEbsco Business
2009-current
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ABA Journal of Labor & Employment LawProQuest
2007-current
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ABA juvenile & child welfare law reporterEbscohost Academic Search Complete
2008-current
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ABA Tax TimesEbscohost Academic Search Complete
2015-current
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ABA Trust & InvestmentsProQuest
1999-2006
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ABA trust letterProQuest
1994-2006
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AbacusEbsco Business
1965-current
Embargo Most recent 1 year(s) not available
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AbacusWiley
v.1:1 1965-current
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Aban Offshore Limited MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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Abanka Vipa d.d. MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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AbanteEbscohost Academic Search Complete
2001-2008
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Abasyn journal of social sciencesEbscohost Academic Search Complete
2009-current
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Abatix Corporation, Inc. MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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Abaxis, Inc. MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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ABB, Ltd. MarketLine Company ProfileEbsco Business
2014-current
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ABB, Ltd. SWOT AnalysisEbsco Business
2008-current
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Martin J. Blaser(born 1948) [1] is the Muriel G. and George W. Singer Professor of Translational Medicine, Director of the NYU Human Microbiome Program, former Chair of the Department of Medicine, and Professor of Microbiology at New York University School of Medicine. In 2013 he was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is an established researcher in microbiology and infectious diseases. Blaser's work has focused on Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter species, Salmonella, Bacillus anthracis, and more recently on the human microbiome.[2][3]

Education, early work, recent service[edit]

Blaser obtained his undergraduate education from the University of Pennsylvania in 1969, graduated from the New York University School of Medicine in 1973, and did his post-graduate training at the University of Colorado School of Medicine from 1973 to 1979.[4] Blaser was an Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1979 to 1981.[5]

In 1998, Blaser established the Foundation for Bacteria, which started the Virtual Museum of Bacteria.[6]

In 2005, Blaser was elected the President of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. He has served the National Institutes of Health on the Board of Scientific Counselors of the National Cancer Institute (2005–2010; Chair 2009–2010), and on the Advisory Board for Clinical Research (2009–2013; Chair 2012-2013). In 2011, he was elected into the National Academy of Medicine (formerly Institute of Medicine), in recognition of professional achievement and commitment to service in medicine and health.[5]

In 2014, he was the Kinyoun Lecturer at the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) at NIH, and received the Alexander Fleming Award for lifetime achievement from the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

In 2015, he was selected to be in the TIME 100 Most Influential People in the world,[7] He serves on the Advisory Council of the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) of the National Institutes of Health. He was appointed as the Chair of the President's Advisory Council on Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (CARB) for a term from 2015-2019.

In 2016, Blaser co-founded Commense,[8] a microbiome start-up company where he serves as a Scientific Advisory Board member.[9][10] In October 2016, he became Scientific Advisor at PureTech Health, plc.[11] He has been a Member of the Scientific Advisory Board of Second Genome[12] since 2012[13] and sits on the Advisory Board of the AvidBiotics Corporation[14] as well.

Research[edit]

Blaser is best known[15] for his studies of Helicobacter pylori and its relationship with human diseases.[16][17] His work helped establish the role of H. pylori in the causation of gastric cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death in the world.[18] Studies of the diversity of H. pylori lead him to identify the CagA protein and its gene in 1989, which broadened understanding of H. pylori interactions with humans.[19] His team found that cagA+ strains induced enhanced host responses, development of atrophic gastritis, gastric cancer, and peptic ulcer disease, compared to cagA− strains, and that cagA+ strains signal human gastric cells differently from cagA− strains, and affect gastric physiology in markedly different ways than in the absence of H. pylori.[17] This work led to a general model for the persistence of co-evolved organisms, based on the presence of a Nash equilibrium,[20] and also for the relationship of persisting microbes to cancer,[21] and age-related mortality.[22]

Beginning in 1996, he hypothesized that H. pylori strains might have benefit to humans as well as costs.[23] Despite considerable and ongoing skepticism by the community of H. pylori investigators, Blaser and his colleagues progressively developed a body of research that provided evidence that gastric colonization by this organism provided protection against the esophageal diseases of GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease), Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma, work that has been confirmed by independent investigators.[24] His work has suggested a benefit of H. pylori against such early life illnesses as childhood diarrhea and asthma. This work is consistent with the hypothesis that H. pylori is an ancient, universal inhabitant of the human stomach[25] that has been disappearing as a result of 20th century changes in socio-economic status, including the use of antibiotics.

In 1998, Blaser created the term acagia, to indicate a susceptibility for esophageal diseases in persons not carrying cagA+ H. pylori strains. Since then, acagia has come to reflect the rise in other diseases associated with the loss of cagA+ H. pylori, and may become a metaphor for the disappearance of members of the human microbiome that have symbiotic roles.[21][24] In 2009, with Stanley Falkow, he hypothesized that human microecology is rapidly changing with potentially substantial consequences.[26] He envisioned a step-wise (generational) change to explain the epidemic rise of such diseases as childhood-onset asthma and obesity. Blaser has proposed that greater understanding of our indigenous (and sometimes disappearing) microbiota can lead to improvements in human health.[27]

He has proposed that the routine use (and overuse) of antibiotics in young children may be causing collateral damage, with extinctions of our ancient microbiota at critical stages of early life.[28] This scenario may be contributing to the risk of epidemic metabolic, immunologic, and developmental disorders.[28] Studies in mice have contributed strong support to these hypotheses.,[29][30][31] and on-going work in children with reference to many diseases,[32] asthma,[33] show the importance of early life microbiome perturbation in increasing risk.[34]

Missing Microbes[edit]

Blaser is the title author of a book for general audiences, Missing Microbes: How the Overuse of Antibiotics Is Fueling Our Modern Plagues, about the degradation of human's internal microbial ecosystem as a result of modern medical practices. Professional science writer Sandra Blakeslee helped write Missing Microbes[35], which was published by Henry Holt and Co. in April 2014, and is being translated into 16 languages [number of translation needs reference][citation needed].[36][37][38][39]

References[edit]

  1. ^http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/diglib/sc_diglib/archColl/280.html/
  2. ^"NYU Faculty Bibliography, 2000-: Martin Jack Blaser". NYU Health Sciences Libraries. Retrieved 2017-09-22. 
  3. ^NYU Blaser Lab Website
  4. ^Blaser MJ, Berkowitz ID, LaForce FM, Cravens J, Reller LB, Wang WLL. Campylobacter enteritis: Clinical and epidemiologic features. Annals of Internal Medicine 1979; 91:179 185.
  5. ^ abCDC Website https://www.cdc.gov/
  6. ^http://www.bacteriamuseum.org/index.php/about-this-museum/martin-blaser-founder
  7. ^http://time.com/3822950/martin-blaser-2015-time-100/
  8. ^"New PureTech Startup Commense Aims to Protect Babies From Disease | Xconomy". Xconomy. 2016-03-31. Retrieved 2016-12-12. 
  9. ^"Board and Advisors". Commense. Retrieved 2016-12-12. 
  10. ^"Commense Advances Microbiome Platform Targeting Early Childhood Health". Retrieved 2016-12-12. 
  11. ^"PureTech | Our Advisors". puretechhealth.com. Retrieved 2016-12-25. 
  12. ^"Second Genome | Advisors". Second Genome. Retrieved 2016-12-25. 
  13. ^"Second Genome Announces Expansion of Scientific Advisory Board". Second Genome. Retrieved 2016-12-25. 
  14. ^"Scientific Advisors - Avid Biotics". Avid Biotics. Retrieved 2016-12-25. 
  15. ^"The twists and turns of fate", The Economist. http://www.economist.com/node/11959214. "Germs are Us. Bacteria makes us sick. Do they also keep us alive?" The New Yorker by Michael Specter. October 22, 2012. http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2012/10/22/121022fa_fact_specter?currentPage=all
  16. ^Blaser MJ. The bacteria behind ulcers. Scientific American February, 1996; 274:104–109.
  17. ^ abAtherton JC, Blaser MJ. Co-adaptation of Helicobacter pylori and humans: ancient history, modern implications. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2009; 119:2475–87.
  18. ^Nomura A, Stemmerman GN, Chyou P-H, Kato I, Pérez-Pérez GI, Blaser MJ. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric carcinoma in a population of Japanese-Americans in Hawaii. New England Journal of Medicine 1991; 325:1132–1136.
  19. ^Blaser MJ, Pérez-Pérez GI, Kleanthous H, Cover TL, Peek RM, Chyou PH, Stemmermann GN, Nomura A. Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains possessing cagA associated with an increased risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Cancer Research 1995; 55:2111–2115.
  20. ^Blaser MJ, Kirschner D. The equilibria that permit bacterial persistence in human hosts. Nature 2007; 449:843–849.
  21. ^ abBlaser MJ. Understanding microbe-induced cancers. Cancer Prevention Research 2008; 1:15–20.
  22. ^13. Blaser MJ, Webb GF. Host demise as a beneficial function of indigenous microbiota in human hosts. mBio 2014; 5:1-9. doi: 10.1128/mBio.02262-14.
  23. ^Blaser MJ. An endangered species in the stomach. Scientific American, February 2005; 292:38–45.
  24. ^ abBlaser MJ. Disappearing microbiota: Helicobacter pylori protection against esophageal adenocarcinoma. Cancer Prevention Research 2008; 1:308–311.
  25. ^Blaser MJ. Who are we? Indigenous microbes and the ecology of human diseases. EMBO Reports 2006; 7:956–960.
  26. ^Blaser MJ, Falkow S. What are the consequences of the disappearing human microbiota? Nature Reviews Microbiology 2009; 7:887–894.
  27. ^Blaser MJ. Harnessing the power of the human microbiome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA. 2010; 107:6125–6126.
  28. ^ abBlaser MJ. Antibiotic overuse: Stop the killing of beneficial bacteria. Nature 2011; 476:393–394.
  29. ^Cho I, et al. Early-life antibiotics alter the murine colonic microbiome and adiposity. Nature 2012; 488:621-626. [[[PubMed Identifier|PMID]] 22914093]
  30. ^Cox LM, et al. Altering the intestinal microbiota during a critical developmental window has lasting metabolic consequences. Cell. 2014 Aug 14;158(4):705-21. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.05.052. PMID 25126780
  31. ^Nobel Y et al. Metabolic and metagenomic outcomes from early-life pulsed antibiotic treatment. Nature Communications 2015; 6:7486.
  32. ^Trasande L, Blustein J, Liu M, Corwin E, Cox LM, Blaser MJ. Infant antibiotic exposures and early life body mass. International Journal of Obesity 2013; 37:16-23.
  33. ^Arrieta M-C et al. Early infancy microbial and metabolic alterations affect risk of childhood asthma. Science Translational Medicine 2015; 7:307ra152.
  34. ^Dominguez-Bello MG, Blaser MJ. Asthma: Undoing millions of years of co-evolution in early life? Science Translational Medicine 2015; 7:307fs39.
  35. ^"Sandra Blakeslee : Science Writer". www.sandrablakeslee.com. Retrieved 2016-12-12. 
  36. ^"Drugs: Gut Response". Nature Reviewshttp://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v508/n7495/full/508182a.html
  37. ^"Antibiotics and Collateral Damage". By Allison Mather, Science May 2, 2014 Volume 344, no 6183 pp.472-473. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/344/6183/472.1.full.pdf
  38. ^"Save the Microbes: How antibiotics are making us sick". Wired Magazine, March 2014. http://www.summarizedreading.com/2014/04/save-microbes-how-antibiotics-are.html#!/2014/04/save-microbes-how-antibiotics-are.html
  39. ^"Personal Health: We Are Our Bacteria". By Jane Brody, Well Blog, New York Times, July 14, 2014 http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/07/14/we-are-our-bacteria/

External links[edit]

Martin J. Blaser, MD, in his lab at NYU Langone Medical Center with Xuesong Zhang, PhD. Photo by Carl Glenn

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