Note Bibliography Format

Go to Author-Date: Sample Citations

The following examples illustrate the notes and bibliography system. Sample notes show full citations followed by shortened citations for the same sources. Sample bibliography entries follow the notes. For more details and many more examples, see chapter 14 of The Chicago Manual of Style. For examples of the same citations using the author-date system, follow the Author-Date link above.

Book

Notes

Shortened notes

Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

For many more examples, covering virtually every type of book, see 14.100–163 in The Chicago Manual of Style.

Chapter or other part of an edited book

In a note, cite specific pages. In the bibliography, include the page range for the chapter or part.

Note

Shortened note

Bibliography entry

In some cases, you may want to cite the collection as a whole instead.

Note

Shortened note

Bibliography entry

For more examples, see 14.103–5 and 14.106–12 in The Chicago Manual of Style.

Translated book

Note

Shortened note

Bibliography entry

E-book

For books consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. For other types of e-books, name the format. If no fixed page numbers are available, cite a section title or a chapter or other number in the notes, if any (or simply omit).

Notes

Shortened notes

Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

For more examples, see 14.159–63 in The Chicago Manual of Style.

Journal article

In a note, cite specific page numbers. In the bibliography, include the page range for the whole article. For articles consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database. Many journal articles list a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI forms a permanent URL that begins https://doi.org/. This URL is preferable to the URL that appears in your browser’s address bar.

Notes

Shortened notes

Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Journal articles often list many authors, especially in the sciences. If there are four or more authors, list up to ten in the bibliography; in a note, list only the first, followed by et al. (“and others”). For more than ten authors (not shown here), list the first seven in the bibliography, followed by et al.

Note

Shortened note

Bibliography entry

For more examples, see 14.168–87 in The Chicago Manual of Style.

News or magazine article

Articles from newspapers or news sites, magazines, blogs, and the like are cited similarly. Page numbers, if any, can be cited in a note but are omitted from a bibliography entry. If you consulted the article online, include a URL or the name of the database.

Notes

Shortened notes

Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

Readers’ comments are cited in the text or in a note but omitted from a bibliography.

Note

For more examples, see 14.188–90 (magazines), 14.191–200 (newspapers), and 14.208 (blogs) in The Chicago Manual of Style.

Book review

Note

Shortened note

Bibliography entry

Interview

Note

Shortened note

Bibliography entry

Thesis or dissertation

Note

Shortened note

Bibliography entry

Website content

It is often sufficient simply to describe web pages and other website content in the text (“As of May 1, 2017, Yale’s home page listed . . .”). If a more formal citation is needed, it may be styled like the examples below. For a source that does not list a date of publication or revision, include an access date (as in example note 2).

Notes

Shortened notes

Bibliography entries (in alphabetical order)

For more examples, see 14.205–10in The Chicago Manual of Style. For multimedia, including live performances, see 14.261–68.

Social media content

Citations of content shared through social media can usually be limited to the text (as in the first example below). A note may be added if a more formal citation is needed. In rare cases, a bibliography entry may also be appropriate. In place of a title, quote up to the first 160 characters of the post. Comments are cited in reference to the original post.

Text

Notes

Shortened notes

Bibliography entry

Personal communication

Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text or in a note only; they are rarely included in a bibliography.

Note

General Format

Summary:

This section contains information on The Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the seventeenth edition of The Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in 2017.

Contributors: Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, Ryan Murphy, Vanessa Iacocca, Ryan Schnurr
Last Edited: 2018-02-16 12:40:43

As The Chicago Manual of Style is primarily intended as a style guide for published works rather than for class papers, where necessary, CMOS guidelines will be supplemented with information from the student reference, Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed.), which is largely based on CMOS with some slight alterations and additions.

To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation style, including a chart of all CMOS citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS.

General CMOS Guidelines

  • Text should be consistently double-spaced, including block quotations, notes, bibliography entries, table titles, and figure captions. 
  • For block quotations, which are also called extracts:
    • A prose quotation of five or more lines, or more than 100 words, should be blocked. 
    • CMOS recommends blocking two or more lines of poetry.
    • A blocked quotation does not get enclosed in quotation marks.  
    • A blocked quotation must always begin a new line.
    • Blocked quotations should be indented with the word processor’s indention tool. 
  • Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1. 
  • Subheadings should be used for longer papers. 
    • CMOS recommends you devise your own format but use consistency as your guide. 
      • For CMOS and Turabian’s recommendations, see “Headings,” below. 

Supplemental Turabian Style Guidelines

  • Margins should be set at no less than 1”.
  • Typeface should be something readable, such as Times New Roman or Courier.
  • Font size should be no less than 10 pt. (preferably, 12 pt.). 

Major Paper Sections

Title Page
  • According to Turabian style, class papers will either include a title page or include the title on the first page of the text. Use the following guidelines should your instructor or context require a title page:
    • The title should be centered a third of the way down the page.
    • Your name, class information, and the date should follow several lines later. 
    • For subtitles, end the title line with a colon and place the subtitle on the line below the title.
    • Double-space each line of the title page.

 

    Image Caption: CMOS Title Page

  • Different practices apply for theses and dissertation (see Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, ad Dissertations [8th ed.]. 

Main Body
  • Titles mentioned in the text, notes, or bibliography are capitalized “headline-style,” meaning first words of titles and subtitles and any important words thereafter should be capitalized. 
  • Titles in the text as well as in notes and bibliographies are treated with quotation marks or italics based on the type of work they name. 
    • Book and periodical titles (titles of larger works) should be italicized. 
    • Article and chapter titles (titles of shorter works) should be enclosed in double quotation marks.
    • The titles of most poems should be enclosed in double quotation marks, but the titles of very long poems should be italicized.
    • Titles of plays should be italicized.
    • Otherwise, take a minimalist approach to capitalization.
      • For example, use lowercase terms to describe periods, except in the case of proper nouns (e.g., “the colonial period,” vs. “the Victorian era”).
    • A prose quotation of five or more lines should be “blocked.” The block quotation should match the surrounding text, and it takes no quotation marks. To off-set the block quote from surrounding text, indent the entire quotation using the word processor’s indentation tool. It is also possible to off-set the block quotation by using a different or smaller font than the surrounding text.

In Flowers of Freedom: Reframing Political Thought, Rose eloquently sums up his argument in the following quotation:

In a society of control, a politics of conduct is
    designed into the fabric of existence itself, into the
    organization of space, time, visibility, circuits of
    communication. And these enwrap each individual life
    decision and action—about labour [sic], purchases, debts,
    credits, lifestyle, sexual contracts and the like—in a web
    of incitements, rewards, current sanctions and foreboding 
    of future sanctions which serve to enjoin citizens to
    maintain particular types of control over their conduct.
    These assemblages which entail the securitization of
    identity are not unified, but dispersed, not hierarchical
    but rhizomatic, not totalized but connected in a web or
    relays and relations. (246)

References
  • Label the first page of your back matter, and your comprehensive list of sources, “Bibliography” (for Notes and Bibliography style) or “References” (for Author Date style). 
  • Leave two blank lines between “Bibliography” or “References” and your first entry. 
  • Leave one blank line between remaining entries. 
  • List entries in letter-by-letter alphabetical order according to the first word in each entry. 
  • Use “and,” not an ampersand, “&,” for multi-author entries. 
    • For two to three authors, write out all names. 
    • For four to ten authors, write out all names in the bibliography but only the first author’s name plus “et al.” in notes and parenthetical citations. 
    • When a source has no identifiable author, cite it by its title, both on the references page and in shortened form (up to four keywords from that title) in parenthetical citations throughout the text. 
    • Write out publishers’ names in full. 
    • Do not use access dates unless publication dates are unavailable. 
    • If you cannot ascertain the publication date of a printed work, use the abbreviation “n.d.”
    • Provide DOIs instead of URLs whenever possible. 
    • If you cannot name a specific page number when called for, you have other options: section (sec.), equation (eq.), volume (vol.), or note (n.).

Image Caption: CMOS References Page

Footnotes
  • Note numbers should begin with “1” and follow consecutively throughout a given paper. 
  • In the text:
    • Note numbers are superscripted.
    • Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after all punctuation, except for the dash. 
  • In the notes themselves:
    • Note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period (superscripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable).  
    • Lines within a footnote should be formatted flush left. Place commentary after source documentation when a footnote contains both; separate commentary and documentation by a period. 
      • In parenthetical citation, separate documentation from brief commentary with a semicolon.
      • Do not repeat the hundreds digit in a page range if it does not change from the beginning to the end of the range. 

For more information on footnotes, please see CMOS NB Sample Paper.

Headings

While CMOS does not include a prescribed system for formatting headings and subheads, CMOS makes several recommendations.

  • Maintain consistency and parallel structure in headings and subheads.
  • Use headline-style for purposes of capitalization.
  • Subheadings should begin on a new line.
  • Subheadings can be distinguished by font-size.
  • Ensure that each level of hierarchy is clear and consistent.
  • Levels of subheads can be differentiated by type style, use of boldface or italics, and placement on the page, usually either centered or flush left.
  • Use no more than three levels of hierarchy.
  • Avoid ending subheadings with periods. 

Turabian has an optional system of five heading levels.

Turabian Subheading Plan

Chicago Headings  

Level

Format

1

Centered, Boldface or Italic Type, Headline-style Capitalization 

2

Centered, Regular Type, Headline-style Capitalization

3

Flush Left, Boldface or Italic Type, Headline-style Capitalization  

4

Flush left, roman type, sentence-style capitalization

5

Run in at beginning of paragraph (no blank line after), boldface or italic type, sentence-style capitalization, terminal period.

Here is an example of the five-level heading system:

Image Caption: CMOS Headings

 

Tables and Figures
  • Position tables and figures as soon as possible after they are first referenced. If necessary, present them after the paragraph in which they are described.
  • For figures, include a caption, or short explanation of the figure or illustration, directly after the figure number.
  • Cite the source of the table and figure information with a “credit line” at the bottom of the table or figure and, if applicable, after the caption. The credit line should be distinguished from the caption by being enclosed in parenthesis or written in different type.
    • Cite a source as you would for parenthetical citation, and include full information in an entry on your Bibliography or References page.
    • Acknowledge reproduced or adapted sources appropriately (i.e., photo by; data adapted from; map by . . . ).
    • If a table includes data not acquired by the author of the text, include an unnumbered footnote. Introduce the note by the word Source(s) followed by a colon, then include the full source information, and end the note with a period. 

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in CMOS

Contributors’ names and the last edited date can be found in the orange boxes at the top of every page on the OWL.

Footnote or Endnote (N):

    1. Contributors’ Names, “Title of Resource,” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name, last edited date, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.

    1. Jessica Clements, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert,Allen Brizee, and Vanessa Iacocca, “General Format,” The Purdue OWL, last edited date, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):

Name, Contributor 1, Contributor 2 Name, and Contributor 3 (etc.) Name. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name. Last edited date. http://Web address for OWL resource.

Clements, Jessica, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, and Vanessa Iacocca. “General Format.” The Purdue OWL. Last edited date. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02/.

Author Date In-text Citation:

(Contributors’ Surnames year of publication.

(Clements et al. 2017).

Author Date References Page Citation:

Contributor 1 LastName, Contributor 1 FirstName, Contributor 2 Name, and Contributor 3 Name. Year of Publication. “Title of Resource.” List the OWL as Publishing Organization/Web Site Name. Last edited date. http://Web address for OWL resource.

Clements, Jessica, Elizabeth Angeli, Karen Schiller, S. C. Gooch, Laurie Pinkert, Allen Brizee, and Vanessa Iacocca. 2017. “General Format.” The Purdue OWL. Last edited October 12, 2017. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/02.

Comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *