Dissertation Topics In Md Microbiology Books


Theses/Dissertations from 2017


Bailin, Adam (2017), Regulation of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system by cyclic-di-GMP


Brouillette, Rachel Bottjen (2017), Arenaviruses: mechanisms of antibody-mediated neutralization and an alternative route of entry


Kelly, Patrick Hogan (2017), Reciprocal interactions between Leishmania and their microenvironments during infection in the sand fly gut and human macrophages


Kinkead, Lauren Cornick (2017), Mechanisms of human neutrophil apoptosis inhibition by Francisella


McCracken, Jenna Mae (2017), Mechanisms and consequences of neutrophil apoptosis inhibition by Francisella tularensis

Theses/Dissertations from 2015


Bahr, Sarah (2015), Characterization of risperidone-induced weight gain mediated by alterations of the gut microbiome and suppression of host energy expenditure


Berkebile, Abigail Rae (2015), Airway surface liquid antiviral activity in cystic fibrosis


Hastie, Jessica Lauren (2015), The activation and response of Bacillus subtilis ECF sigma factor sigma V to lysozyme


Ibberson, Carolyn Brook (2015), Hyaluronidase in Staphylococcus aureus physiology and pathogenesis


Intile, Peter J. (2015), Global regulation of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system


Marsden, Anne Elizabeth (2015), Characterization of ExsA self-association and DNA-binding as therapeutic targets to prevent expression of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system


Merriman, Joseph Alan (2015), Secreted Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors and their role in chronic wound development and persistence


Ransom, Eric M. (2015), Clostridium difficile: shedding light on pathogenesis


Stach, Christopher (2015), Characterizing the role of the enterotoxin gene cluster in Staphylococcus aureus diseases

Theses/Dissertations from 2014


Darnell, Cynthia Lynn (2014), Chemosensory regulation of development and heme homeostasis in Myxococcus xanthus


Diaz, Manisha Regina (2014), Regulation of virulence gene expression by Rsm homologs in Pseudomonas aeruginosa


Flack, Caralyn E. (2014), Mutagenesis and structural analysis of the Staphylococcus Aureus Sae two-component system reveals the intricate nature of virulence regulation


Lennemann, Nicholas Joseph (2014), Biochemical characterization of Ebola virus GP


Moller-Tank, Sven Henrik (2014), The role of TIM-1 in enveloped virus entry


Murphy, Caitlin Nolan (2014), The role of cyclic di-GMP in regulating type 3 fimbriae : a colonization factor of Klebsiella pneumonia


Rasmussen, Jed Anthony (2014), Identification and characterization of capsule and/or O-antigen mutants of Francisella tularensis Schu S4


Vu, Bao Gia (2014), Proposed mechanisms underlining the potential effects of Staphylococcal superantigens on the development of type two diabetes


Zimbeck, Alicia Janelle (2014), Fate of Francisella tularensis capsule and O-antigen mutants in human macrophages

Theses/Dissertations from 2013


Fayram, Drew Clair (2013), Characterization of the neutrophil respiratory burst during infection with Francisella novicida


King, Jessica Marie (2013), Defining the interaction of ESXA and LCRF with Type III secretion system gene promoters


Mootz, Joe Michael (2013), Regulation and function of Staphylococcus aureus secreted proteases on biofilm integrity


Oakland, Mayumi (2013), Improving lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer by understanding cellular barriers


Perez Morales, Tiara G. (2013), Production of and Response to the Cannibalism Peptide SDP in Bacillus subtilis


Schwartz, Justin Todd (2013), A matter of life or death: modulation of neutrophil apoptosis and complement activation by Francisella tularensis


Spaulding, Adam Russell (2013), Secreted virulence factors in lethal illness due to Staphylococcus aureus


Walker, Jennifer Nicole (2013), The two-component system, ArlRS, regulates agglutination and pathogenesis in Staphylococcus aureus

Theses/Dissertations from 2012


Bartelt, Rebekah Ruth (2012), Characterization of GRB2 and SOS1 binding downstream of TCR activation


Kiedrowski, Megan R. (2012), Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus extracellular nuclease activity


Maric, Martina (2012), Identification of cellular factors involved in herpes simplex virus type 1 nucelar egress


Thoendel, Matthew James (2012), Synthesis of the accessory gene regulator autoinducing peptide in Staphylococcus aureus


Willett, Jonathan (2012), Bacterial two-component systems share a common mechanism to regulate signaling and specificity


Zeiner, Sarah Ann (2012), Type 1 fimbrial structure and regulation in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

Theses/Dissertations from 2011


Duncan, Tammi Rae (2011), Site-directed mutagenesis of the SPOR domain from Escherichia Coli FtsN


Gode, Cindy Jean (2011), Vibrio parahaemolyticus responds to growth on a surface by initiating a program of gene control that is regulated by calcium, iron, and quorum sensing


Johnson, Jeremiah Gene (2011), Regulation of type 3 fimbrial gene expression in Klebsiella pneumoniae


Kondratowicz, Andrew Steven (2011), A bioinformatics approach to identifying novel genes involved in ebolavirus entry


Scott, Jodie Catherine (2011), Che6 chemosensory regulation of multicellularity in myxococcus xanthus


Ueno, Norikiyo (2011), Host and parasite determinants of Leishmania survival following phagocytosis by macrophages

Theses/Dissertations from 2010


Fulton, Ross Bane (2010), Regulation of virus-specific T cells in the lung during respiratory virus infections


Lindemann, Stephen Robert (2010), Exploring the genetic basis of intracellular pathogenesis in Francisella tularensis


Miller, Catherine Leta (2010), Properties associated with filoviral-glycoprotein-mediated entry events in permissive cells


Perez Morales, Tiara G. (2010), SdpAB are required for post-translational modification of SdpC


Vakulskas, Christopher Anthony (2010), Mechanism of transcriptional activation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ExsA


Williams, Kyle Brandon (2010), The DamX cell division protein of Escherichia coli: identification of amino acid residues critical for septal localization and peptidoglycan binding

Theses/Dissertations from 2009


Buchan, Blake Wade (2009), Examining the regulation of virulence factors in Francisella tularensis


Exline, Colin Michael (2009), The positive regulation of HIV-1 Vif mRNA splicing is required for efficient virus replication


Kuehn, Joanna Sue (2009), Dam methylation and putative fimbriae in Klebsiella pneumoniae


Li, Di (2009), CrdA regulates endogenous beta-lactamase activity in Myxococcus xanthus


Sandersfeld, Lindsay Marie (2009), Identification of ebola glycoprotein mutants that exhibit increased transduction efficiency


Storlie, Patricia Ann (2009), Expression of the major surface protease (MSP) of leishmania chagasi


Wood, Megan Lindsay Falsetta (2009), Coping with stress: anaerobic respiratory and oxidative stress tolerance mechanisms are critical for Neisseria gonorrhoeae biofilm formation



Applied and Environmental Microbiology (AEM) publishes descriptions of all aspects of applied microbial research, basic research on microbial ecology, and research of a genetic and molecular nature that focuses on microbial topics of practical value. Research must address salient microbiological principles, fundamental microbial processes, or basic questions in applied or environmental microbiology. Topics that are considered include microbiology in relation to foods, agriculture, industry, biotechnology, public health, plants, and invertebrates and basic biological properties of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other simple eukaryotic organisms as related to microbial ecology. Manuscripts should report new and significant findings that advance the understanding of microbiology and upon which other scientists may build. To best serve its readership, the journal must accept only those papers that are most significant to the field of applied and environmental microbiology. Thus, the editors will reject manuscripts that, while scientifically sound, represent only incremental extensions of other studies, are mainly confirmatory, or do not pursue a question in sufficient depth.

The biodegradation section describes novel microbial processes for alteration, removal, or utilization of environmental or anthropogenic chemicals.

Papers in the biotechnology section describe the use and modification of organisms in order to achieve socially beneficial objectives.

The environmental microbiology section covers manuscripts that focus on research related to microorganisms in the environment. This is distinct from the microbial ecology section, which focuses on ecological relationships, such as interactions among organisms, their structure and functional role in an ecosystem, and community level studies. Thus, the environmental microbiology section features articles that focus on specific organisms in the environment, rather than a whole community, as well as those in which the study is not focused on implied or stated underlying ecological relationships.

The enzymology and protein engineering section covers the structure and function of environmentally or industrially significant proteins and how they can be modified to achieve practical catalytic objectives.

Included in the evolutionary and genomic microbiology section are papers detailing newly described evolutionary processes and evolutionary relationships among microorganisms. Topics include genomic analysis of established microorganisms and metagenomic investigation of microbial populations in the environment.

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New microbiological methods must provide novel avenues to address fundamental biological questions and will be considered for publication in AEM when accompanied by a demonstrated application. Descriptions of the application of previously described technologies, including the cloning, amplification, and expression of “foreign” genes, to a new genus or species of microbe will generally not be considered for independent publication. Manuscripts that describe the construction of engineered strains for innovative process application, development, or enhancement must present results to authenticate the utility, superiority, and uniqueness of such strains.

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ASM publishes a number of different journals covering various aspects of the field of microbiology. Each journal has a prescribed scope which must be considered in determining the most appropriate journal for each manuscript. The following guidelines may be of assistance.

  1. AEM will consider manuscripts describing properties of enzymes and proteins that are produced by either wild-type or genetically engineered microorganisms and that are significant or have potential significance in industrial or environmental settings. Studies dealing with basic biological phenomena of enzymes or proteins or in which enzymes have been used in investigations of basic biological functions are more appropriate for the Journal of Bacteriology.

  2. AEM will consider papers which describe the use of antimicrobial agents as tools for elucidating aspects of applied and environmental microbiology. Other papers dealing with antimicrobial agents, including manuscripts dealing with the biosynthesis and metabolism of such agents, are more appropriate for Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

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  5. AEM and Eukaryotic Cell (EC) accept manuscripts on population dynamics and the ecology of eukaryotic microbes. Studies of microbial communities and of microbial populations with identified economic or ecological significance, e.g., plant pathogens or symbionts, are usually more appropriate for AEM. Studies of single species of eukaryotes, especially “model” organisms or those without identified economic or ecological importance, are usually more appropriate for EC.

  6. Manuscripts dealing with the purification and characterization of enzymes or cloning of genes that have already been extensively described for other organisms will be considered for publication only if they offer experimentally supported new insights into the biological role, properties, or applications of these enzymes. Descriptions of genes or enzymes that differ only in minor ways from the prototypes are not suitable for AEM.

Questions about these guidelines may be directed to the editor in chief of the journal being considered.

If transfer to another ASM journal is recommended by an editor, the corresponding author will be contacted.

Note that a manuscript rejected by one ASM journal on scientific grounds or on the basis of its general suitability for publication is considered rejected by all other ASM journals.

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ComplianceFailure to comply with the policies described in these Instructions may result in a letter of reprimand, a suspension of publishing privileges in ASM journals, and/or notification of the authors' institutions.

Authors employed by companies whose policies do not permit them to comply with the ASM policies may be sanctioned as individuals and/or ASM may refuse to consider manuscripts having authors from such companies.

Warranties and ExclusionsArticles published in this journal represent the opinions of the authors and do not necessarily represent the opinions of ASM. ASM does not warrant the fitness or suitability, for any purpose, of any methodology, kit, product, or device described or identified in an article. The use of trade names is for identification purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by ASM.

Page ChargesAuthors whose research was supported by grants, special funds (including departmental and institutional), or contracts (including governmental) or whose research was done as part of their official duties (government or corporate, etc.) are required to pay page charges (based on the number of typeset pages, including illustrations, in the article).

For a corresponding author who is an ASM member, page charges are currently $65 per page for the first eight pages and $125 per page for each page in excess of eight (subject to change without notice). To obtain the member rate, the corresponding author must be an ASM member.

For a nonmember corresponding author, page charges are currently $75 per page for the first eight pages and $250 for each page in excess of eight (subject to change without notice). A corresponding author who is not an ASM member may join ASM to obtain the member rate.

If the research was not supported by any of the means described above, a request to waive the charges may be sent to the Journals Department, ASM, 1752 N St., N.W., Washington, DC 20036-2904, USA (fax, 202-942-9355; e-mail, aluckey{at}asmusa.org). This request must include the manuscript control number assigned by ASM and indicate how the work was supported.

Minireviews, Meeting Reviews, Guest Commentaries, and Comment Letters to the Editor are not subject to page charges.

Editorial StyleThe editorial style of ASM journals conforms to the ASM Style Manual for Journals (American Society for Microbiology, 2009, in-house document) and How To Write and Publish a Scientific Paper, 6th ed. (Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 2006), as interpreted and modified by the editors and the ASM Journals Department.

The editors and the Journals Department reserve the privilege of editing manuscripts to conform with the stylistic conventions set forth in the aforesaid publications and in these Instructions.

Review ProcessAll manuscripts are considered to be confidential and are reviewed by the editors, members of the editorial board, or qualified ad hoc reviewers.

To expedite the review process, authors must recommend at least three reviewers who have expertise in the field, who are not members of their institution(s), who have not recently been associated with their laboratory(ies), and who could not otherwise be considered to pose a conflict of interest regarding the submitted manuscript. Please provide, where indicated on the submission form, contact information for suggested reviewers who are not editorial board members.

Copies of in-press and submitted manuscripts that are important for judgment of the present manuscript should be included as supplemental material to facilitate the review.

When a manuscript is submitted to the journal, it is given a number (e.g., AEM00047-09 version 1) and assigned to one of the editors. (Always refer to this number in communications with the editor and the Journals Department.) It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to inform the coauthors of the manuscript's status throughout the submission, review, and publication processes. The reviewers operate under strict guidelines set forth in “Guidelines for Reviewers” (http://www.journals.asm.org/misc/reviewguide.shtml) and are expected to complete their reviews expeditiously.

The corresponding author is notified, generally within 4 to 6 weeks after submission, of the editor's decision to accept, reject, or require modification. When modification is requested, the corresponding author must either submit the modified version within 2 months or withdraw the manuscript. A point-by-point response to the reviews must be provided in the designated section of the Rapid Review submission form for the revised manuscript, and a compare copy of the manuscript (without figures) should be included as supplemental material if the editor requested one.

Manuscripts that have been rejected, or withdrawn after being returned for modification, may be resubmitted to the same ASM journal if the major criticisms have been addressed. A manuscript rejected by one ASM journal on scientific grounds or on the basis of its general suitability for publication is considered rejected by all other ASM journals; however, a manuscript rejected solely on the basis of scope may be “resubmitted” to a more appropriate ASM journal. A manuscript is considered a resubmission no matter how much (or little) it differs from the rejected or withdrawn manuscript and regardless of how much time has passed.

For all resubmissions (to the same or a different journal, and irrespective of the extent of the revisions and irrespective of the amount of time between rejection and resubmission), the cover letter must state that the manuscript is a resubmission, and the former manuscript number must be provided in the appropriate field on the submission form. A point-by-point response to the review(s) and a compare copy of the revised manuscript showing all changes must be included as supplemental material (the Rebuttal section appears in the submission form only if the manuscript is a modification). Manuscripts resubmitted to the same journal are normally handled by the original editor.

Rejected manuscripts may be resubmitted only once unless permission has been obtained from the original editor or from the editor in chief.

Notification of AcceptanceWhen an editor has decided that a manuscript is acceptable for publication on the basis of scientific merit, the author and the Journals Department are notified. A PDF version of the accepted manuscript is posted online as soon as possible (see below).

The text files undergo an automated preediting, cleanup, and tagging process specific to the particular article type, and the illustrations are examined. If all files have been prepared according to the criteria set forth in these Instructions and those in Rapid Review, the acceptance procedure will be completed successfully. If there are problems that would cause extensive corrections to be made at the copyediting stage or if the files are not acceptable for production, ASM Journals staff will contact the corresponding author. Once all the material intended for publication has been determined to be adequate, the manuscript is scheduled for the next available issue and an acceptance letter indicating the month of publication, approximate page proof dates, and table of contents section is mailed to the corresponding author; a copyright transfer agreement is also included, as is a license to permit posting of supplemental material (if applicable). The editorial staff of the ASM Journals Department completes the editing of the manuscript to bring it into conformity with prescribed standards.

Publish ahead of PrintFor its primary-research journals, ASM posts online PDF versions of manuscripts that have been peer reviewed and accepted but not yet copyedited. This feature is called “[journal acronym] Accepts” (e.g., AEM Accepts) and is accessible from the Journals website. The manuscripts are published online as soon as possible after acceptance, on a weekly basis, before the copyedited, typeset articles are published. They are posted “as is” (i.e., as submitted by the authors at the modification stage) and do not reflect ASM editorial changes. No corrections/changes to the PDF manuscripts are accepted. Accordingly, there likely will be differences between the AEM Accepts manuscripts and the final, typeset articles. The manuscripts remain listed on the AEM Accepts page until the final, typeset articles are posted. At that point, the manuscripts are removed from the AEM Accepts page and become available only through links from the final, typeset articles. The manuscripts are under subscription access control until 6 months after the typeset articles are posted, when free access is provided to everyone (subject to the applicable ASM license terms and conditions). Supplemental material intended, and accepted, for publication is not posted until publication of the final, typeset article.

Instructions on how to cite such manuscripts may be found in the “References” section below.

Page ProofsPage proofs, together with a query sheet and instructions for handling proofs, will be made available to the corresponding author electronically via a PDF file that can be accessed through a unique password. Since corresponding authors will be notified of the availability of their PDF proofs, instructed how to access information about page charges, reprints, and color figure charges (if applicable), and assigned their unique password via e-mail, an e-mail address must be supplied in the correspondent footnote. Failure to do so may result in a delay in publication. The PDF page proofs must be printed out, and corrections must be written on the hard copy. Queries must be answered on the query page or on a separate sheet of paper, and any changes related to the queries must be indicated on the proofs. Note that the copy editor does not query at every instance where a change has been made. Queries are written only to request necessary information or clarification of an unclear passage or to draw attention to edits that may have altered the sense. It is the author's responsibility to read the entire text, tables, and figure legends, not just items queried. As soon as the page proofs are corrected and signed by the person who proofread them (within 48 h), they should be mailed or sent by a courier service such as FedEx, not faxed or sent as an e-mail attachment, to the ASM Journals Department, 1752 N St., N.W., Washington, DC 20036-2904.

The proof stage is not the time to make extensive corrections, additions, or deletions. Figures as they appear in the proofs are for validation of content and placement, not quality of reproduction or color accuracy. Print output of figures in the PDF page proofs will be of lower quality than the same figures viewed on a monitor. Please avoid making changes to figures based on quality of color or reproduction in proof. Starting in 2009, the online version will be considered the journal of record for all ASM journals. If you submit RGB color files, the figures published online in the final version should be a very close color match to your figure source files; color figures in the printed issue may not look exactly like the online versions or the data as originally captured because the RGB files will be converted to CMYK color for print production. If you submit CMYK color files, the figures published in print should be a close color match to your source files, but CMYK files are not optimal for online color reproduction.

Important new information that has become available between acceptance of the manuscript and receipt of the proofs may be inserted as an addendum in proof with the permission of the editor. If references to unpublished data or personal communications are added, it is expected that written assurance granting permission for the citation will be included. Limit changes to correction of spelling errors, incorrect data, and grammatical errors and updated information for references to articles that have been submitted or are in press. If URLs have been provided in the article, recheck the sites to ensure that the addresses are still accurate and the material that you expect the reader to find is indeed there.

Questions about late proofs and problems in the proofs should be directed to the ASM Journals Department (telephone, 202-942-9219). Questions about accessing or viewing your PDF proofs should be directed to Katie Gay of Cadmus Communications at 804-261-3155 or gayk{at}cadmus.com.

ReprintsReprints (in multiples of 100) may be purchased by all coauthors. In the proof notification e-mail, the corresponding author will be instructed how to access information about reprints.

The corresponding authors of Minireviews, Meeting Reviews, and Guest Commentaries may receive 100 free reprints of their contribution; additional reprints (in multiples of 100) may be purchased if desired. As for regular articles, the corresponding author will be instructed, in the proof notification e-mail, how to access information about reprints.

PDF FilesA corresponding author who has included an e-mail address in his/her “corresponding author” footnote will have limited access (10 downloads, total) to the PDF file of his/her published article. An e-mail alert will automatically be sent to him/her on the day the issue is posted. It will provide a URL, which will be required to obtain access, and instructions. An article may be viewed, printed, or stored, provided that it is for the author's own use.

Should coauthors or colleagues be interested in viewing the paper for their own use, the corresponding author may provide them with the URL; a copy of the article may not be forwarded electronically. However, they must be made aware of the terms and conditions of the ASM copyright. (For details, go to http://www.journals.asm.org/misc/terms.shtml.) Note that each such download will count toward the corresponding author's total of 10. After 10 downloads, access will be denied and can be obtained only through a subscription to the journal (either individual or institutional) or after the standard access control has been lifted (i.e., 6 months after publication).

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All submissions to AEM must be made electronically via the Rapid Review online submission and peer review system at the following URL: https://www.rapidreview.com/ASM2/CALogon.jsp. (E-mailed submissions will not be accepted.) First-time users must create an Author account, which may be used for submitting to all ASM journals. Instructions for creating an Author account are available at the above URL under the Create Account button. Step-by-step instructions for submitting a manuscript via Rapid Review are available from the account holder's My Manuscripts page. Information on file types acceptable for electronic submission can be found under the More About File Formats button.

PDFs of submitted manuscripts are retained in Rapid Review for 1 to 2 years, after which they are deleted.

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On receipt at ASM, an accepted manuscript undergoes an automated preediting, cleanup, and tagging process specific to the particular article type. To optimize this process, manuscripts must be supplied in the correct format and with the appropriate sections and headings.

Type every portion of the manuscript double-spaced (a minimum of 6 mm between lines), including figure legends, table footnotes, and References, and number all pages in sequence, including the abstract, figure legends, and tables. Place the last two items after the References section. Manuscript pages should have line numbers; manuscripts without line numbers may be editorially rejected by the editor, with a suggestion of resubmission after line numbers are added. The font size should be no smaller than 12 points. It is recommended that the following sets of characters be easily distinguishable in the manuscript: the numeral zero (0) and the letter “oh” (O); the numeral one (1), the letter “el” (l), and the letter “eye” (I); and a multiplication sign (×) and the letter “ex” (x). Do not create symbols as graphics or use special fonts that are external to your word processing program; use the “insert symbol” function. Set the page size to 8½ by 11 inches (ca. 21.6 by 28 cm). Italicize or underline any words that should appear in italics, and indicate paragraph lead-ins in boldface type.

Authors who are unsure of proper English usage should have their manuscripts checked by someone proficient in the English language.

Manuscripts may be editorially rejected, without review, on the basis of poor English or lack of conformity to the standards set forth in these Instructions.

  • Double-space all text, including references and figure legends

  • Number pages

  • Number lines

  • Present statistical treatment of data where appropriate

  • Format references in ASM style

  • Indicate journal section for manuscript publication

  • Provide accession numbers for all sequences or sequence alignments important for evaluation of the manuscript as supplemental material or make the material available on a website for access by the editor and reviewers

  • Confirm that genetic and chemical nomenclature conforms to instructions

  • Include as supporting material in-press and submitted manuscripts that are important for judgment of the present manuscript

Long-Form PapersLong-form papers should include the elements described in this section.

Title, running title, and byline.Each manuscript should present the results of an independent, cohesive study; thus, numbered series titles are not permitted. Exercise care in composing a main title. Avoid the main title/subtitle arrangement, complete sentences, and unnecessary articles. On the title page, include the title, running title (not to exceed 54 characters and spaces), name of each author, address(es) of the institution(s) at which the work was performed, each author's affiliation, and a footnote indicating the present address of any author no longer at the institution where the work was performed. Place an asterisk after the name of the author to whom inquiries regarding the paper should be directed (see “Correspondent footnote” below).

Study group in byline.A study group, surveillance team, working group, consortium, or the like (e.g., the Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Team) may be listed as a coauthor in the byline if its contributing members satisfy the requirements for authorship and accountability as described in these Instructions. The names (and institutional affiliations, if desired) of the contributing members may be given in a footnote keyed to the study group name in the byline or as a separate paragraph in Acknowledgments.

If the contributing members of the group associated with the work do not fulfill the criteria of substantial contribution to and responsibility for the paper, the group may not be listed in the author byline. Instead, it and the names of its contributing members may be listed in the Acknowledgments section.

Correspondent footnote.The complete mailing address, a single telephone number, a single fax number, and a single e-mail address for the corresponding author should be included on the title page of the manuscript. This information will be published in the article as a footnote to facilitate communication, and the e-mail address will be used to notify the corresponding author of the availability of proofs and, later, of the PDF file of the published article.

Abstract.Limit the abstract to 250 words or fewer and concisely summarize the basic content of the paper without presenting extensive experimental details. Avoid abbreviations and references, and do not include diagrams. When it is essential to include a reference, use the same format as shown for the References section but omit the article title. Because the abstract will be published separately by abstracting services, it must be complete and understandable without reference to the text.

Introduction.The introduction should supply sufficient background information to allow the reader to understand and evaluate the results of the present study without referring to previous publications on the topic. The introduction should also provide the hypothesis that was addressed or the rationale for the present study. Use only those references required to provide the most salient background rather than an exhaustive review of the topic.

Materials and Methods.The Materials and Methods section should include sufficient technical information to allow the experiments to be repeated. When centrifugation conditions are critical, give enough information to enable another investigator to repeat the procedure: make of centrifuge, model of rotor, temperature, time at maximum speed, and centrifugal force (× g rather than revolutions per minute). For commonly used materials and methods (e.g., media and protein concentration determinations), a simple reference is sufficient. If several alternative methods are commonly used, it is helpful to identify the method briefly as well as to cite the reference. For example, it is preferable to state “cells were broken by ultrasonic treatment as previously described (9)” rather than to state “cells were broken as previously described (9).” This allows the reader to assess the method without constant reference to previous publications. Describe new methods completely, and give sources of unusual chemicals, equipment, and microbial strains. When large numbers of microbial strains or mutants are used in a study, include tables identifying the immediate sources (i.e., sources from whom the strains were obtained) and properties of the strains, mutants, bacteriophages, and plasmids, etc. Parameters such as temperature, pH, and salinity (or conductivity) must be reported for environmental samples that are extracted for molecular analyses.

A method or strain, etc., used in only one of several experiments reported in the paper may be described in the Results section or very briefly (one or two sentences) in a table footnote or figure legend. It is expected that the sources from whom the strains were obtained will be identified.

Results.In the Results section, include only the results of the experiments; reserve extensive interpretation of the results for the Discussion section. Present the results as concisely as possible in one of the following: text, table(s), or figure(s). Avoid extensive use of graphs to present data that might be more concisely presented in the text or tables. For example, except in unusual cases, double-reciprocal plots used to determine apparent Km values should not be presented as graphs; instead, the values should be stated in the text. Similarly, graphs illustrating other methods commonly used to derive kinetic or physical constants (e.g., reduced-viscosity plots and plots used to determine sedimentation velocity) need not be shown except in unusual circumstances. Limit photographs (particularly photomicrographs and electron micrographs) to those that are absolutely necessary to show the experimental findings. Number figures and tables in the order in which they are cited in the text, and be sure to cite all figures and tables.

Discussion.The Discussion should provide an interpretation of the results in relation to previously published work and to the experimental system at hand and should not contain extensive repetition of the Results section or reiteration of the introduction. In short papers, the Results and Discussion sections may be combined.

Acknowledgments.The source of any financial support received for the work being published must be indicated in the Acknowledgments section. (It will be assumed that the absence of such an acknowledgment is a statement by the authors that no support was received.) The usual format is as follows: “This work was supported by Public Health Service grant CA-01234 from the National Cancer Institute.”

Recognition of personal assistance should be given as a separate paragraph, as should any statements disclaiming endorsement or approval of the views reflected in the paper or of a product mentioned therein.

Appendixes.Appendixes, which contain additional material to aid the reader, are permitted. Titles, authors, and References sections that are distinct from those of the primary article are not allowed. If it is not feasible to list the author(s) of the appendix in the byline or the Acknowledgments section of the primary article, rewrite the appendix so that it can be considered for publication as an independent article, either long-form or short-form style. Equations, tables, and figures should be labeled with the letter “A” preceding the numeral to distinguish them from those cited in the main body of the text.

References. (i) References listed in the References section.The References section must include all journal articles (both print and online), books and book chapters (both print and online), patents, theses and dissertations, published conference proceedings, meeting abstracts from published abstract books or journal supplements, letters (to the editor), and company publications, as well as in-press journal articles, book chapters, and books (publication title must be given). Arrange the citations in alphabetical order (letter by letter, ignoring spaces and punctuation) by first-author surname and number consecutively. Provide the names of all the authors for each reference. All listed references must be cited parenthetically by number in the text. Since title and byline information that is downloaded from PubMed does not always show accents, italics, or special characters, authors should refer to the PDF files or hard-copy versions of the articles and incorporate the necessary corrections in the submitted manuscript. Abbreviate journal names according to the List of Journals Indexed for Medline (National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 2009; available at ftp://nlmpubs.nlm.nih.gov/online/journals/ljiweb.pdf), the primary source for ASM style.

Follow the styles shown in the examples below for print references.

  1. Arendsen, A. F., M. Q. Solimar, and S. W. Ragsdale. 1999. Nitrate-dependent regulation of acetate biosynthesis and nitrate respiration by Clostridium thermoaceticum. J. Bacteriol. 181:1489-1495.

  2. Cox, C. S., B. R. Brown, and J. C. Smith. J. Gen. Genet., in press.* {Article title is optional; journal title is mandatory.}

  3. da Costa, M. S., M. F. Nobre, and F. A. Rainey. 2001. Genus I. Thermus Brock and Freeze 1969, 295,AL emend. Nobre, Trüper and da Costa 1996b, 605, p. 404-414. In D. R. Boone, R. W. Castenholz, and G. M. Garrity (ed.), Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology, 2nd ed., vol. 1. Springer, New York, NY.

  4. Elder, B. L., and S. E. Sharp. 2003. Cumitech 39, Competency assessment in the clinical laboratory. Coordinating ed., S. E. Sharp. ASM Press, Washington, DC.

  5. Falagas, M. E., and S. K. Kasiakou. 2006. Use of international units when dosing colistin will help decrease confusion related to various formulations of the drug around the world. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:2274-2275. (Letter.) {“Letter” or “Letter to the editor” is allowed but not required at the end of such an entry.}

  6. Fitzgerald, G., and D. Shaw. In A. E. Waters (ed.), Clinical microbiology, in press. EFH Publishing Co., Boston, MA.* {Chapter title is optional.}

  7. Forman, M. S., and A. Valsamakis. 2003. Specimen collection, transport, and processing: virology, p. 1227-1241. In P. R. Murray, E. J. Baron, M. A. Pfaller, J. H. Jorgensen, and R. H. Yolken (ed.), Manual of clinical microbiology, 8th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.

  8. Garcia, C. O., S. Paira, R. Burgos, J. Molina, J. F. Molina, and C. Calvo. 1996. Detection of salmonella DNA in synovial membrane and synovial fluid from Latin American patients. Arthritis Rheum. 39(Suppl.):S185. {Meeting abstract published in journal supplement.}

  9. Green, P. N., D. Hood, and C. S. Dow. 1984. Taxonomic status of some methylotrophic bacteria, p. 251-254. In R. L. Crawford and R. S. Hanson (ed.), Microbial growth on C1 compounds. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.

  10. Odell, J. C. April 1970. Process for batch culturing. U.S. patent 484,363,770. {Include the name of the patented item/process if possible; the patent number is mandatory.}

  11. O'Malley, D. R. 1998. Ph.D. thesis. University of California, Los Angeles. {Title is optional.}

  12. Rotimi, V. O., N. O. Salako, E. M. Mohaddas, and L. P. Philip. 2005. Abstr. 45th Intersci. Conf. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., abstr. D-1658. {Abstract title is optional.}

  13. Smith, D., C. Johnson, M. Maier, and J. J. Maurer. 2005. Distribution of fimbrial, phage and plasmid associated virulence genes among poultry Salmonella enterica serovars, abstr. P-038, p. 445. Abstr. 105th Gen. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC. {Abstract title is optional.}

  14. Stratagene. 2006. Yeast DNA isolation system: instruction manual. Stratagene, La Jolla, CA. {Use the company name as the author if none is provided for a company publication.}

*A reference to an in-press ASM publication should state the control number (e.g., AEM00577-09) if it is a journal article or the name of the publication if it is a book.


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