Structure Of Geography Essay

Although the content and information that you put in an essay will change depending on what topic it is on, a logical and coherent structure (part of the mark scheme) is essential in getting top marks.

How it should be structured:

  1. Read the question carefully. What kinds of phrases stand out? i.e. 'Explain', 'Examine', 'Evaluate' - these all lead to various structures and ways of answering the question.

  2. Introduction - key (especially for a 15 mark essay) - provides the examiner a insight into a student's understanding of the context and the key words (which should be defined) of the question. State your argument/stance on the question. Perhaps include a key fact if you have time.

  3. Main body - This may seem overwhelming at first. Make it simpler by choosing thematic/topical points based on the question and following this structure: Point, Evidence, Explanation, Link to the question (PEEL). Make sure that in the point, you are answering the question. Make sure you paragraph and keep the structure clear. This will help you to ensure a clear argument throughout. Provide case studies to exemplify knowledge and to strengthen your points/argument.

  4. Conclusion - Draw together the various points made in the main body of the essay. Summarise the arguments you have made; reiterate your argument and link back to the question.

Notes: Be synoptic! This is key to make sure you get into the top band of marks - shows the examiner that you are well-rounded; illustrates a better understanding of the fundamental basis of geography as an area of study. Timing is important - for 15/20 markers allows for around 20 minutes, for 12/10 markers, aim for around 15 mins. Spelling, punctuation and grammar are important. Make sure you know what the exam board are asking for i.e. Edexcel

  • AO1 Knowledge and understanding - application of theories, case studies etc. to show understanding and knowledge; "accurate and relevant geographical knowledge and understanding throughout".
  • AO2 Application and analysis - using case studies to strengthen your points and argument; synopticity
  • AO3 Communication and structure - logical and coherent organisation of essay.

Content of this article

  1. Outline sample
  2. Introduction writing
  3. Body writing
  4. Conclusion writing
  5. Topic List

How To Write Essay About Geography

A geography essay is an article that explains the appearance and existence of phenomena like physical features and some human-made features. It tries to explain how natural resources like rivers, mountains, and valleys came into existence. It also explains their significance. Most students have a difficult time writing papers on geography due to its complexity. This article is meant to improve your essay on geography writing skills. As most students do not know how to start a geography essay, below is a geography essay outline.  This paper is a guide on how to write a geography essay.

Geography essay structure and outlining

Outline Sample


The study of geography is far and wide.  There two broad areas; natural and human-made. This essay on geography will focus on how human activities like industrialization and farming have affected nature.

Thesis statement

Over the years, climate change has been a topic of discussion as a bomb waiting to explode.  Industrialization has led to a shift in climate due to the emission of CFOs that have resulted in global warming. The effects of climate change can be felt in its different capacities. By 2020, the effects of global warming will be so severe that the earth will almost be inhabitable.

  1. Global warming has led to the expansion of deserts. Deserts such as the Sahara and the Kalahari have become drier and expanded due to lack of rain in the surrounding areas.
  2. Melting of glaciers- the Arctic and the Antarctic have experienced a reduction in their ice mass due to global warming. The ice is gradually melting.
  3. Mutations of animals- due to the effects of global warming, animals have begun mutating, therefore, becoming more resistant.


Human beings have contributed to the change in climate, yet the more technology moves forward, the more the damage is likely to be in future. We need to derive a method of keeping the air, water, and soil pollution free.

With this outline for a geography essay, it is easier to see the essay tackles.

Tips concerning introduction writing

There are many tips on geography essay writing to guide you through your paper. This section highlights some of the simple tips for introduction writing that one can use.

  • First, you need to know the geography essay outline before you start writing the essay. Consider the geography essay topics of choice. It is important in developing a geography essay draft that guides you into the kind of research to carry out. Ensure that the topic is one that you understand fully for easy geography essay writing.
  • In a geography essay introduction, explain the phenomena you are writing about in details stating its exact location.

Tips on body (paragraphs, length, and transition)

  • The body of a geography essay includes both theory and specific real life cases. It answers the what, where and the why questions. Geography essay prompts you to have a relevant case study about the phenomena.
  • It should be factual. Mention specific names and location and ensure they are accurate.
  • Ensure that diagrams used are well drawn and labeled.
  • Ensure that what you write relates to the thesis.
  • Keep it as objective as possible for example do not say the Big Bang Theory is a lie.
  • It has to be well organized into categories, discussing different factors in well thought out paragraphs.
  • The transitions should blend well in cases where one paragraph is not enough to explain the phenomena and its implications.

Writing the conclusion

How to conclude a geography essay is a challenge for many students. In the geography essay conclusion, give a general outlook of the phenomena of study and your opinion based on the case study done. The conclusion for a geography essay should state the recommendations and solutions that you think should be put in place to bring changes. It explains the significance of your findings. Do not introduce new information in the conclusion, but ensure that it matches the argument presented in the introduction.

Sources for geography essay choice

The geography essay topic chosen will guide you into finding out the best source to use. There are very many sources of geographical data. Find a source that is accessible such as libraries and the Internet.  Papers on geography can also be used as a reference.

Students can use the internet, topographical maps, Atlas, Globe, literature review and observation as their sources. Observation, however, requires you to dedicate a lot of time for field work. Books in the libraries are very helpful especially when you need diagrammatic representation.

The atlas is convenient for finding the accurate location.

Finalizing the essay

A geography essay is not complete without a glossary that explains the definition of technical terms used in the essay. A glossary is a requirement in all papers on geography.

  • Ensure that the diagrams (if used) are clear and well labeled. State the sources of these charts and provide links for further reading. These pictures act as a geography essay writing guide for the readers.
  • Proofread the essay for accuracy. Ensure that the argument proposed does not deviate from the topic. This makes sure that your geography papers writing can be defended as true.
  • Check for punctuation, correct referencing for content and spelling.

Geography essay tips for topic choice

These tips are important for students that want to learn how to write a geography essay.

  • The choice of topic is the first step to passing papers on geography. Choose a topic that you are conversant with. This makes it easier to write without too much geography essay writing help.
  • The topic should be catchy and precise to capture the attention of the reader.
  • The topic should not be overly broad. It allows you to defend your argument.

Top 20 geography essay topics

  • How do volcanic activities occur?
  • Discuss the Supernova theory
  • The effects of the rising climate change
  • What is a human-wildlife conflict?
  • How does climate affect vegetation?
  • Discuss the ocean topography
  • How does the principle of relativism relate to geography
  • Explain how currents have affected fishing in Japan
  • Discuss longitudes and latitudes and the concept of time
  • How does the moon affect tides?
  • Discuss the earth and solar system
  • What causes tsunamis and hurricanes?
  • Explain what causes the occurrence of rocks
  • Statistical Geographical data
  • Elaborate the significance of faulting
  • Explore the effects of the Himalayas and its surrounding
  • Determine how sextants identifies position in the sea
  • Identify how do physical features affect human activities?
  • Explore the implications of farming on soil pollution
  • Why do deserts occur?
  • Discuss how water bodies affect the rain cycle


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